Competition Time: iPad Music 2019

The purpose of this competition is to encourage people of all ages to get involved in music creation. Portable technology now enables us to create our music anywhere and at anytime. Many aspects of life inspire creativity. When each moment arrives, we can now create without delay.

About three years ago I ran an international competition challenging composers to write the ultimate 8-bar melody. It was fascinating to see how entrants approached it. Every melody had a unique sense of character and we saw so many creative ideas exploring melodic shaping, pitch-range, phrasing, use of rests, rhythmic devices and step/leap movement. After over 40,000 votes online, the two melodies below were our top two, with Alice’s melody winning the competition overall.

Both melodies copyright protected. 2015. All rights reserved.

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Competition 2019

To celebrate a change in GCSE Music that’s making ‘Music’ an accessible and brilliant creative choice for all students, this year’s competition will explore inventiveness and creativity using an iPad to compose original music.

Brief

⁃ Compose an original piece of music using an iPad with GarageBand

⁃ It must be 30-36 seconds in duration (the sound must stop before 36s is reached)

⁃ The music should sound ‘finished’ at the end and have purpose as TV theme music

⁃ The music can be in any genre and written for any solo instrument or combination of instruments. You may also record your own samples and perform them at different pitches, using the ‘Keyboard Sampler’ in GarageBand

⁃ You may use quantisation, EQ and the other included plug-ins to mix your music

⁃ The music must not include pre-recorded loops, smart drummer or auto-play functions. Every aspect must be your own creation

⁃ All music must be created only using the iPad and without connecting other devices

The purpose of this competition is to encourage people of all ages to get involved in music creation. Portable technology now enables us to create our music anywhere and at anytime. Many aspects of life inspire creativity. When each moment arrives, we can now create without delay.

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This competition has now closed.

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Examples

With this competition in mind, I wrote the following two 30-36s themes. These are not included in the competition, but I just wanted to share the first 2 diverse ideas I had when considering this task. Many many outcomes are possible. I can’t wait to hear what you will create.

iPad Music Example 1:”Gritty Crime Drama Theme” by Dave Lowe

iPad Music Example 2:”Countryside Walk Theme” by Dave Lowe

Copyright of both themes. Dave Lowe 2019. All rights reserved.

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‘GCSE Music Production Via Technology’ at Manor CE Academy, York

In addition to our popular ‘GCSE Music’ course we now run this second pathway. Ultimately all students are entered for the same qualification, but the type of learning is very different between the two. The ‘technology’ course, as the name suggests, has technology at the centre of all learning. Students on this pathway do not need to be able to play an instrument or sing as they can use ‘production’ instead.

Both courses are for students who love music and want to explore everything about it. Both guide students to discover how music is constructed and help them to strive to understand, perform and compose music in any genre, time or culture. Both courses help students to develop their craft and grow confidently in their creativity.

We currently enter students onto the AQA 8271 GCSE Music course. Other exam boards are available and the people running those qualifications are equally fantastic. The assessment on the AQA course is as follows:

40% – One 90-minute exam, testing understanding of music by listening as well as some questions based on a choice of study pieces

30% – Performance – students produce two technology productions of existing music

30% – Composition – students write two original creations, one to a brief (like the one in the competition)

The creative, problem solving and organisational skills developed in GCSE Music, significantly support students as they study other subjects like English, Maths & Science. The experience helps them to develop determination, resilience and independence in their work.

Title Photo by Annie Spratt on Unsplash

Harmony – The Hot Chocolate for Your Marshmallows

Following on from ‘Detox Melody’, the natural next move was to ‘Detox Harmony’.

Harmony is the most complex musical element for our students to understand. Mostly problems occur when they don’t consider the impact of an additional part, which naturally they don’t. When beginning to compose, they layer sounds or melodies together and are transfixed on time (often asking how long it should be), without any consideration of the vertical relationships of notes. When students submit composition work to be marked, they often haven’t considered ‘the harmony’ at all so a significant amount of unpicking follows due to the amount of ‘clashing’.

I began today’s Y9 lesson just as I had with melody. I firstly asked “What is harmony and why create harmony?”

The students answered:

“It’s just different notes played together”

“It creates a more complex texture”

“It makes the music sound richer or fuller”

“It’s the hot chocolate for your marshmallows, the jam for your doughnut”… then followed a huge argument as to whether that should be “doughnut for your jam”

The suggestions are all correct in some way, but perhaps the most helpful is the Hot Chocolate. It supports the melody (the marshmallows), and is usually in the pitch range below the melody to begin with. The two go together well, sharing a common purpose. In the time that follows though and as the music develops, or the marshmallows begin to sink through the chocolate and melt into different shapes, the relationship between the two can change. The melody can have a greater interaction within other parts of the texture.

We then agreed that when two or more notes are played together, a sense of harmony is created. Sometimes that relationship is consonant, sometimes dissonant, but that we need to be able create both, and every other harmonic relationship on a spectrum in between. We cannot help that there ‘is harmony’, but we can learn more about tonalities, keys, intervals and chords to be able to control it.

I find harmony to be one of most powerful tools with the rate of change of harmony controlling how the energy of the music is able to flow. I’m also fascinated by the additional opportunities created by considering harmony, texture and articulation together. A seasoned composer might well be able to think about the music holistically. Students, learning about composition for the first time don’t have that luxury. They need to understand the impact each change within an element has. Harmony is more difficult to understand as many considerations have to be made simultaneously.

So in preparation for the following task, I first took the decision to limit the number of possibilities within harmony, rhythm and texture, just as I has limited the melody rhythms to using only crotchets and quavers in the last lesson.

The process chosen for today’s harmony task as follows:

1. Looking back to the plan from last week, we began by inputting ‘signpost’ bass notes. That is choosing to begin with a ‘D’ in the bass at the start of bars 1 and 5 (both structural A-sections). Then an ‘A’ note as the furthest diatonic tonal point from ‘D’ at the end of bars 2, 4 and 6 – the moments we wanted the music to sound unfinished. Finally ending bar 8 with a D to make it sound finished. Initially we decided that changing the bass note every 4 beats would create unwanted clashes between some melody notes and the held bass notes, so we began by composing a different bass note every two beats (as minims).

2. Using the D Major Diatonic Chord Chart as below, we were able to fill in the missing notes.

**Image from How To Write Great Music: Understanding the Process from Blank Page to Final Product, 2015, Lulu Publishing

For example if, at the vertical point we need to add a bass note, the note in the melody is a G, we look at the chart to see which diatonic chords in D Major include a ‘G’. There are three diatonic chords in D Major containing a ‘G’:

– E Minor (E G B)

– G Major (G B D)

– C# Dim. (C# E G)

The strongest bass notes to choose to go with the melody ‘G’ would therefore be E, G or C#, however it’s only possible to decide which is most appropriate in the context of what is written before and after by listening. Repeating the same bass note from one minim to the next caused the harmony to feel stuck, as it did in the melody. Having the same note in the melody and harmony parts made the texture sound ‘thinner’ at those points. Students also found step-wise movement in the bass line was preferable when possible, and that problems were caused when the movement of the bass notes leaped up and down on subsequent minims.

Considering that last week’s lesson was the first for students to write a melody, and this week was the first glimpse of harmony, all the outcomes were amazing.

Year 9 student Ollie, excited by the idea of sharing our practice online, has volunteered to be included in this week’s blog. Ollie’s is happy to share that he’s not a confident reader of music yet. He’s not had specific tutoring before, but has chosen to use his voice as his instrument for GCSE music.

This is beautiful melody writing, with a lovely sense of shape and balance. It is simple due to the restrictions I’d set of only using crotchets and quavers, but is of quality far advanced of his point of learning. The harmony is also very sensitively written and shows evidence of understanding and control. I interviewed him just after he showed me his work.

How did he write the melody?

“Since it’s in D major, it [the melody] started with a lower note D and ended on higher notes at the end of the second bar. Then it went back down from there until the end of the 4th bar. What I do is raise the pitch up in the first bar and then when it feels right, I go down again. I thought about the moments when the melody direction changed – it was when I reached a crotchet, having always played quavers. I listened and tried to think about when the right time was to go up or down, before it felt like it had gotten too high or too low”.

How did you write the harmony?

“I listened to find which notes matched with the melody notes above. I looked for which notes were in a chord to find out which other notes worked together. The end of bars 2 and 6 are the same, so I tried to make them both sound unfinished. The end of 4 sounds unfinished, because it feels like it wants to carry on. The end of bar 8 feels finished because it ends on the D but in a higher octave. I made it start and finish with D as I was in D major.

Another remarkable creation was from Lucas and Leo, two of our Year 9 Music Production via Technology students whose melody was featured in last week’s ‘Melody Detox’. They had accidentally written in Dorian on C. Using the Dorian Mode Chart as below, they worked out that by thinking about the note row C-D-Eb-F-G-A-Bb-C, it was possible to see which notes worked consonantly well together.

**Image from How To Write Great Music: Understanding the Process from Blank Page to Final Product, 2015, Lulu Publishing

For example if playing an Eb, they could play-one, miss-one, play-one, miss-one, play-one to reach Eb G Bb and when listening, they found that any of these notes worked well together. This pattern worked for all notes in all keys.

(No idea why clip appears upside-down on some browsers – apologies).

Their beautifully written melody and harmony could easily become music for film, television or video game. Lucas and Leo tell me they’re already imagining and discussing music that depicts adventure and tells a story. Amazing!

Photo by Stefen Tan on Unsplash

A Practical Model to Grow Confidence in Music for Young People Aged 11-16

Over the last 8 years in my current school, I’ve been continually looking for ways to improve the experience of my music students. Every one of them is unique, no matter ability, demographic or experience of life. A one-size-fits-all model would have failed within minutes so I’ve developed a flexible, customisable model for every individual and, so far, for every situation we’ve encountered, I have seem positive outcomes.

The fundamental purpose is to help every young person to have everything they need to develop in music ‘to the max’ and to prepare them for their musical life into the future. Measurable aspects, such as examinations, are a helpful inclusion but they’re only part of the bigger picture of each individual’s experience.

The Starting Point

The starting point of the 230 or so students that join my school every year varies greatly. There are 230 starting points. It is counter-productive at this stage to produce a starting ‘grade’ and often this can be a discouragement for the young people. A few have been learning to play an instrument at KS2, but many haven’t and there has been variety in the quality of tuition received. As students begin to explore music, it is often for the first time with us and some haven’t come across even simple musical aspects like pulse or rhythm. A few have done a weekly singing activity. Equally I always have some young people who have already developed a sense of musicianship.

Musically Understanding the Starting Point

I’ve always run a baseline test to understand:

– if students are able to recognise musical changes by listening

– if students are aware of musical instruments, how they’re played and to which families of the orchestra they belong

– if students know the meaning of musical terms like pitch, dynamics, texture and tempo

– if students can recognise shapes and patterns in notation

– if students can read musical notes on the treble and bass clef staves

– if students are aware of more complex language such as Italian terms

The average score is 24/50. The lowest score ever achieved is 4/50 and the highest 50/50, achieved this year by a percussion student. He was the first to achieve the top mark in 4 years.

However, over the last two years I’ve also run a baseline performance task. Students are given a piano, some letter-named notes and 20 minutes to prepare a performance of a well-known 8-bar melody. Each student performs and these are recorded on video. This task would be fascinating for those interested in music education research. In many ways this type of test is a much more accurate measure of musical awareness, as there are no multiple choice answers to guess. The first observation is proof that a student’s musical ability is not equivalent to a result in a year 6 Maths or English test. Each student gives their best performance based on their individual experience. Each performance, and particularly how each student approaches their playing in the 230 videos, is different.

The End Point

For a student attending an 11-16 school, the end point is often seen as the grades they leave with as a GCSE student. There is a bigger picture here though, and to constantly create the highest expectations, I challenge my students to think at a standard beyond the GCSE syllabus. Ultimately I’d like my students to have a rich and developed understanding of music, that enables them to confidently perform and compose music, constantly developing their own craft and creatively collaborating with others.

A Flexible Customisable Model to Develop Confidence in Music for Students Aged 11-16

Having established the starting and end points, it’s then been possible to develop a bespoke experience for each individual student, based on the types of needs they have in common. This model has helped us to develop the students’ experience in our school. It could easily be used in other schools as there’s sufficient flexibility and little cost to embed.

How does it work?

Consider the 4 concentric circles as below.

The centre (1) represents each individual student. They each have to be at the centre of our thinking. Always. It should challenge us to always consider whether an aspect of their experience is genuinely ‘creative, helpful and inspiring’ or ‘tedious, un-necessary and destructive’.

The next circle (2) represents all the opportunities that a music student must have in order for them to develop. Each opportunity around the circle can be customised based on each student’s needs, interests and ambitions. The opportunities are not ‘on’ or ‘off’, the more of each opportunity the better for the student’s overall development, but recognising that (often due to time or funding), some students will have a different balance to others. This should not be a ‘have’ and ‘have not’, all should ‘have’, but there will be differences in the amount of involvement, often down to the individual’s choice or ambition. As a head of music, I can have an impact on helping to improve all of these areas, even though other agencies and organisations have the responsibility to manage them. Some areas seem obvious, but I find that quite regularly some stakeholders are not aware of their required responsibility. Open and honest, proactive and positive communication between all stakeholders is vital. Focusing on and improving each of these opportunities for all learners has been key in helping them to develop and build confidence in music.

The next circle (3) represents the products and experiences that all music students should focus on. These are easy for stakeholders to organise at minimal or no cost but are the things that students are inspired by and use to develop their understanding of music through application.

Finally the outer circle (4), the outcome at the end of Year 11, following the completion of products and experiences. Not the end, but the beginning of the next period of musical learning and development.

This is our current model.

There’s probably room for several more blog entries to describe the impact of each ‘opportunity’. In practice each area is vast and contributes to a rich, varied music education. Key aspects to mention initially though:

1. It has very much felt in the last few years, that the accountability of outcomes has rested more with teachers and schools. This model is design to not consider any stakeholders as have more importance or accountability than others. Thus, products, experiences and outcomes are written around the circles to represent the joint impact all stakeholders must have. The role of the student themselves and how they each choose to approach their learning is just as important as every other aspect.

2. We became an academy around the same time as arts fundings was reduced, which locally fragmented the services in place to offer instrumental tuition. We decided, following discussions with peripatetic tutors, students and parents, to run our own tuition programme. Tutors are contracted directly to our department to deliver high quality lessons. Within their contract we ask each tutor to have a passion to develop the confidence and interest in their instrument by them leading a relevant ensemble. This helps to grow a strong music team of like-minded professionals. All lessons, with all tutors for all instruments cost the same. Students can choose to share their lessons in 2s or 3s, in which case the cost is shared, but most students are taught individually or in pairs. They are paid directly our parents. When affordability is an issue for parents, there are funding opportunities through YorkMusicHub. Some members of our staff or others in the community have also supported students in the past by paying for lessons. We currently offer lessons in: piano, keyboard, drum kit, percussion, bass guitar, music theory, classical guitar, brass, woodwind, electric guitar, popular acoustic guitar, voice, upper strings, cello, double bass and harp.

3. In addition to the included students’ perceptions of their ideal music teacher, students need me to be constantly developing a relevant curriculum. At our school every student has an iPad. We use the app Showbie as a method for students to upload videos of their performances or scores and recordings of compositions. In this way, I can provide a more fluid and instant method of feedback, which encourages them to be always reflecting, questioning and developing.

4. The model is for all students aged 11-16.

We find this model to work very well. Naturally there will always be things for us to improve, but the flexibility and collective responsibility the model creates, inspires our young people greatly. If you’re reading this as a department, school or education leader, please try it if you’re not doing so already and let me know if you need help or more information.

Year 8 “Production” Launched

This first week of 2019 has seen the launch of our exciting new “Production” unit in KS3 music at Manor. The unit gives students the opportunity to explore the type of work they might do on our new GCSE Music Production Via Technology Pathway. It could also be the first step of development towards a career in music, media, theatre, film, TV or journalism.

In addition to the ‘Developing, Securing & Mastering’ standards now operating at KS3, we’ve introduced ‘Super-mastering’ to challenge students, even at age 12-13, to develop industry-level production values.

To begin with, the unit encourages students to learn about the role each instrument plays within a band. Rather than working towards a particular style or genre, they are concentrating on understanding how musical parts fit together in pitch and rhythm. Once these fundamentals are in control, they will have absolute creative freedom to explore their individual chosen style or genre.

Each student will take the role of the producer, taking the creative lead in the process to deliver a fully mixed and mastered recording. They are each given a lead sheet of the song and audio tracks of the vocals – there are female and male vocals to choose from. They must understand and record all of the instrument parts (piano, bass guitar, drum kit and acoustic guitar) using their iPad with GarageBand. Initially students will be challenged to create the chorus. More ambitious students will aim to complete the whole song in the next 6 weeks.

The level of discussion between students using musical language is already amazing. In the first week, many came to realise that the “annoying thing ticking in the background” (the metronome) had a real and important purpose. Their new musical world relied on it and by ignoring it their music did not sound good at all! It was also fascinating to learn of the number of students who hadn’t realised that all instruments follow the same lead sheet. They had not comprehended that bass, guitar and piano would need to play similar notes at each of those points in the lead sheet. This realisation gave them confidence that music wasn’t as hard to understand as they’d thought. Above all, they were instantly challenged to listen critically and learn how to improve their work if it wasn’t what they wanted.

They began by recording the piano as chords. Once recorded they used quantisation and were able to choose the correct settings, based on their chosen rhythm. They also edited the individual notes, by listening, to make sure they were each the desired length and volume for their chosen style of production. Following on, some students recorded a complementing bass line and a drum kit track. One student, Hollis, recorded and edited 4 tracks (shown below) within the 40 minutes available in the first lesson. When I asked him about the process so far he said “it’s really good, the only frustrating thing so far is that the quantisation function does not consider the strumming motion which was helpful to use in the recording of the acoustic guitar”. He was absolutely right and I was slightly taken aback at the level of thought already in his work.

Another fascinating conversation was with Lauren on Thursday. She had recorded the bass to fit with the piano, but wanted the bass to have more punch or presence in the mix compared to the piano. I really didn’t think I’d be teaching about compression and EQ in the first lesson of our new year 8 unit, but she understood the theory well enough to create a great piece of work. Amazing!

Title Photo by Mitchell Leach on Unsplash

Melody Detox – updated

For this first week back of the new year, I decided to focus on melody with all my year 9 and 10 students. For year 9 this was their first experience of writing melodies with this amount of depth of thought, and a timely reminder for year 10 who are beginning to compose longer works. As mentioned in a previous post, the melody is so fundamental in any composition.

I began by asking them what a melody was. Answers included:

“It’s the ‘main bit’ of the music”

“Motif”

“Character”

“Tells a story”

“Makes a piece unique”

“Can make us feel sad or happy”

“Can make it sound like someone is eating chicken in a medieval castle”

“Catchy”

“Memorable”

“Sets a mood”

All brilliant answers, but I wonder how many of them had re-considered these purposes before writing their last melody.

I continued on to ask them, what makes a good melody? Answers included:

“High-pitched”

“Structure”

“Major & Minor scale”

“The right key… not all plonky!”

“Keeping it in time like pulse”

“Different textures”

“Not repetitive”

“Fits together and flows”

“Doesn’t jump up multiple octaves”

“Makes sense with other parts of music”

“Uses musical devices”

A huge range of answers here showing that some students are more confident than others, but overall this was a harder question for them than the first.

Next I gave them this brief, which is their challenge to have completed in 6 weeks time.

We began together in each class by planning or drawing out the requirements of the task.

As in the image below, this discussion included:

– A decision for everyone to write initially in D major, with a time signature of 4/4, for piano, tempo of crotchet = 115, and with an 8-bar melodic structure of ABAC.

– To write out the notes in the D Major scale and discuss the points of the scale, making particular reference to the tonic and the dominant.

– To draw out the 8 bars, marking on bar numbers and the structure ABAC. Discussion of which bars would then be the same and which different

– Make decisions of how each of the 4, 2-bar phrase sections would end, ‘finished’ or ‘unfinished’.

– Make decisions about which cadences to use later on in the harmony and therefore which melody notes to target at the end of each phrase.

The year 9 and 10 traditional Music GCSE students are completing this individually. The new Production Via Tech pathway are completing it in pairs as many do not play instruments or read notation, so extra support and encouragement is helpful.

Students began by composing a 2-bar rhythm, with all notes on ‘D’. Having considered the melody structure, they copied and pasted this into bars 5 and 6. To compose the rhythm for bars 3 and 4, they listened to the first two bars, both from Sibelius and by clapping, and wrote down the idea that made most sense to them as a response to their opening idea. Then listening to bars 1-6, they created their 7-8 in the same way, with the addition of considering that it need to sound finished.

Having shared their work with each other, they returned to the previous question of ‘what makes a good melody?’, now also recognising that is was helpful to have a deeper level of control. Their answers now:

– “Clear structure”

– “Music broken down into phrases”

– “Some thought of where the melody sounds finished and unfinished”

– “Use the longest note at the end to make it sound finished”

– “For memorable, it helps to keep it simple and have some repetitive parts”

All excellent answers, showing musical understanding.

Next we considered the pitches in the melody. We had a discussion about how, when listening, movement by-step was simpler to understand than by-leap. Students discovered quickly that the amount of up and down motion in each of the 2-bar phrases could also control how simple or complex the outcome was. Thinking about the cadence points in the initial plan helped students to place those ‘signpost notes’ into the music before beginning to change others. They also found another controller of simple/complex was the range.

The outcomes of all pieces were amazing. All learners in years 9 and 10 completed their unique melody within the 2 hours and all met the required standard. Perhaps most fascinating, was that Year 9 Production Via Technology found the task most straightforward. Their melodies were of equal standard to the other students’, despite many of them not having notation backgrounds. I am continuing to learn much about how our young people learn in many different ways.

As I draw this entry to a close, I must mention the music of Lucas & Leo, two of our 9PvT class. They mistakenly selected a key signature of 2bs instead of 2#s at the start of the lesson and at some point in the process also decided that C was the tonic note. They had inadvertently composed in Dorian mode in C. Their melody was absolute exquisite and mouths dropped open around the room as everybody heard it. It sounded amazing as they’d understood how to balance rhythm and shape, how to create an ABAC melody structure and how to consider cadence points at the end of each phrase. By listening critically and with a determination to control their music, they were able to create something magnificent.

Title Photo by rawpixel on Unsplash

A Wall of 2 Sides – increasing students’ learning ambition in Music

One wall in the Manor music department is more important than any other.

Side A – The Wall of Fame

The Wall of Fame is a visual display to celebrate the achievements and progress of Music students choosing to study for graded exams. Students have a choice as to whether or not they would like to be included on the wall. On entering the academy, or completing their latest grade, exam students use a board in the music room to write down their details of instrument, grade and result. For GDPR reasons they must also sign and date to confirm they’re happy for this information to be displayed. A new coloured slip is then created and added to the Wall of Fame. The slips are in the three colours to show whether a student has received a pass, merit or distinction in their grade. This encourages discussion between students at all levels about the aspects of exams they struggle with.

A student must achieve at least a ‘grade 1 pass’ to be added to the board. When they achieve a higher grade, the previous slip is removed and they move up the wall, attempting to reach grade 8 by the time they leave us after year 11, which is usually achieved by 2 or 3 students each year. Through our tutor team, students are encouraged to develop technical competence and musical understanding, rather than focusing on taking back-to-back grades, but the most committed and passionate students can make an incredible amount of progress in a relatively short period and we are constantly challenged to create higher expectations.

Students walk past the ‘A side’ of the wall every day, whether they have a music lesson or not. Students are proud to have their achievements shown and they are encouraged to move up the wall during their time with us. Community is so important at Manor and students are encouraged to build good relationships with other musicians in the academy, no matter what year they’re in. Younger students see our higher grade students as role models and as they get older, or more advanced in their studies, they aspire to become leaders themselves.

As a leader in music it is great to celebrate with them in this way and so important that I keep track of where everybody is up to. It also helps when planning our extra-curricular programme.

Side B – The WordWall

I created the first version of the WordWall as a result of a piece of action research in my NQT year at Huntington School, York. The enquiry was looking at how we could help students to use appropriate vocabulary in their learning. The ‘wall’ began with around 200 words, but has evolved over time and its use has inspired students to be more ambitious in their studies. The latest version of the WordWall (shown above) has now developed to over 500 words. The terminology hasn’t changed in the last ten years, but the depth of understanding we are now seeking has increased greatly. This is incredibly exciting. It is not really creating more work for us, but a greater opportunity that allows us to understand more music and in more detail. The expansion challenges students to be more passionate and determined in their approach to the study of music than ever before.

How does it work?

The WordWall is fundamental in every lesson and makes musical language the starting point, reference point and focus. Towards the bottom of the wall, the ‘elements of music’ are printed in bold. These categories of musical words have a column each and are printed onto different colours of card. Elements that are closely related to each other are given a similar colour, for example ‘pulse’ and ‘tempo’. Students find it helpful to remember terminology in categories rather than individual words, just in the same way as they recognise foods as fruits, meats and breads etc. Above each element, there is a list of related ‘musical words’. The order of the words is important in each column. Dynamics, for example, are ordered from top to bottom as loud to soft. Below the elements in bold, there are words to remind students of their meaning, but these are not then used when students give answers. They just act as a safety net.

Lessons often focus on experiencing and discovering what a word means, before then having opportunity to explore how it feels to sing, perform or compose with that concept in mind. Students are encouraged to think of each term in its category or context and discuss an alternative or combination of words (or devices). This approach ensures that students are not just learning words, but understanding tools to use, which is great for composing.

The concept of printing key terminology to stick on a classroom wall has been around for years, but this is not a poster… it is an entire wall! It is very much an evolving resource as students discover more helpful ways to order the information too. The ultimate aim is to be able to describe any piece of music, from any year and from any culture or country.

I recently spoke at the Education Expo conference at Old Trafford, Manchester. During the panel discussion, a delegate asked how I even begin to plan to teach the increased depth of content in the newly reformed GCSE curriculum. I explained that, in the lesson time we have available, it is just not possible to teach every style and genre of the last 400 years. The students would also not be inspired to learn in that way. However, I can encourage my students of how to listen, how to analyse and crucially, how to discover the terminology that all of our music has in common to the point where they can confidently understand it and create their own.